Gastritis: What causes gastritis and how does it manifest? + Treatment

Gastritis: What causes gastritis and how does it manifest? + Treatment
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Gastritis, gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa. It occurs quite often. It can be acute or chronic. The acute form is caused by alcohol, stress, or poor lifestyle. The chronic form is frequent, leaving long-term changes in the gastric mucosa.


Inflammation of the stomach, gastritis, or inflammation of the gastric mucosa is a relatively common disease. It can occur in an acute form, so it occurs suddenly. But it also persists as long-term, ie chronic gastritis. It is also more common.

The acute form begins suddenly and usually resolves quickly. It may affect all or part of the lining of the stomach. The area type is also referred to as pangastritis. To a lesser extent, it mostly affects the antral area of ​​the stomach.

The difference in acute inflammation also occurs in the depth of mucosal involvement. When it is either erosive or non-erosive. Erosion, ie damage to the mucosa, is superficial, but also deep, and then bleeding

Acute gastritis is caused by a variety of causes. After food, alcohol, medication, as a result of poisoning or severe stress. It can also be caused by Helicobacter pylori or other viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Depending on the type and extent of inflammation, treatment is then continued.

Chronic gastritis has a long and long duration. It lasts for several weeks, and in this form, long-term changes (atrophy, metaplasia) are noticeable on the gastric mucosa. These affect the surface of the mucosa, but also the deeper layers of the stomach wall. The causes are also various, the most commonly reported being Helicobacter pylori infection.

What we should know about the stomach

The stomach is a hollow muscular organ of the digestive system. It is technically referred to as gaster or stomachs or ventriculus. It has a bag shape. It is located in the abdominal cavity, largely under the left arch of the diaphragm.

Part of the stomach is placed under the lower left ribs. Subsequently, it bends to the right down, to the area between the left and right rib arch, to a place under the sternum, professionally the regio epigastric, ie the epigastrium. The stomach is the link between the esophagus and the small intestine.

The table shows the main parts of the stomach

Title Description
cardia cardia entrance to the stomach from the esophagus
sphincter, circular muscle
fundus the bottom the upper and widest part of the stomach
body body the largest part of the stomach
has an anterior and posterior part with a
curved line
major curvature large curvature left curvature of the stomach
minor curvature small curvature right curvature
pyloric part pyloric part the narrowest part of the stomach
antrum, which is the beginning of this part
passes into the small intestine, into the duodenal - duodenal part
pylorus doorman, pylor strong animal - circular muscle

The stomach is adjacent to other organs and parts of the body, such as:

  • diaphragm
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • spleen
  • left kidney
  • left adrenal gland
  • transverse colon
  • front surface of the abdominal wall

The diet in the form of a bolus passes via the esophagus into the stomach. And from the oral cavity, where the first processing of the diet takes place with teeth and saliva from saliva. It stays here for some time and is further processed. The stomach is a strong muscle that moves food through its movement, which helps the penetration of digestive gastric juices.

Approximately 1-2 liters of contents will fit in an adult's stomach.
The food remains in the stomach for 4-5 hours.
About 2-3 liters of gastric juice is produced per day.

Gastric juice is produced by the lining of the stomach. And it has a pH of 1 to 4, so it is strongly acidic. There is a protective layer of mucin on the mucosa, which is a barrier against the acidic environment. Gastric juice contains several ingredients. Such as pepsinogen, which is activated by pepsin. It then breaks down proteins.

An internal factor, glycoprotein, is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12. The main component of gastric juice, which is responsible for the acidic environment, is HCl, ie hydrochloric acid. This has several tasks, such as:

  • maintains an acidic environment
  • activates pepsinogen to pepsin
  • acts on proteins facilitates their digestion
  • reduces iron to a form that is absorbable
  • protects vitamin C
  • kills foreign organisms, prevents the multiplication of yeast
  • acts on insoluble salts and turns them into soluble ones

Digested food is also referred to as chymus and is processed in the rest of the digestive tract. It is partially divided from the stomach into the small intestine through the pylorus. Pylorus separates the stomach from the duodenum and prevents digestion from returning to the stomach. The small intestine continues to digest itself.


Acute gastritis has various causes. It occurs suddenly and in most cases recedes quickly. It usually affects a part of the stomach called the antrum. However, it can also have a pangastric form, ie it affects the entire surface of the stomach. This type of inflammation may or may not cause damage to the gastric mucosa.

Accordingly, it is also referred to as non-erosive gastritis, which does not damage the mucosa. The erosive form can be superficial, deep, or even bleeding. It occurs during the 24th to 48th hours. The main causes of acute gastritis include:

  • excessive alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to alcohol
  • smoking
  • drugs
    • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin)
    • corticoids
    • cytostatics
  • severe stress
    • burns
    • injuries
    • condition after surgery
  • shock
  • ischemia (bloodlessness), poor blood supply
  • psychological burden
    • long term stress
      burnout syndrome
  • unsuitable food and drinks
    • dietary error
    • spicy food
    • animal fats
  • spoiled food
  • infection
    • cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex
    • Helicobacter pylori
  • intoxication with chemicals or drugs
  • other long-term diseases such as
    • thyroid disease
    • diabetes
    • hormonal and immune disorders
    • uremia
  • radiation

Chronic gastritis develops over several weeks and persists. This is due to long-term damage to the gastric mucosa. It is distinguished into surface or deep. A lighter form is superficial inflammation. Endoscopy also uses the marking of flat and arched erosions.

The table lists three types of chronic gastritis

Title Description
Type A autoimmune origin, autoimmune gastritis
its occurrence is rare, and only in 3 - 6 percent of cases the
body produces substances that damage its own cells
mainly affects the body of the stomach
in other autoimmune diseases such as Addison's disease
Type B infectious origin
80% responsible Helicobacteretr pylori
most often the antrum of the stomach is affected
Type C chemical irritation
intoxication with poisons, chemicals, drugs
reflux duodenal juices in duodenogastric reflux
chronic alcoholism

TIP:  Helicobacter pylori is also responsible for gastric ulcers .

Chronic gastritis is more common than acute. Anemia, Crohn's disease, food intolerance, or the natural aging process can also be the cause. But the main cause is  Helicobacter pylori (HP). At the same time, however, most populations with HP do not develop gastritis. It is also given by the heredity and overall lifestyle of a person.


The symptoms of gastritis are not always specific, regardless of the acute or chronic form. They may be mild. For example, in a chronic type of gastritis, no complications may be present - asymptomatic chronic gastritis. Only in the acute exacerbation of long-term disease will they manifest as acute inflammation. Chronic gastritis is subsequently a risk for ulceration, ie ulcers or cancer (MALT lymphoma, stomach cancer ).

The following symptoms may occur with gastritis:

  • nausea
  • the feeling of heaviness in the area above the stomach (in the epigastrium)
  • anorexia, anorexia
  • bad taste in the mouth, bad breath
  • a feeling of discomfort, which is a vague negative feeling but not pain
  • pain in the abdomen, and therefore especially in the epigastrium, ie above the stomach
    • before food
    • after meal
  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • vomiting 
    • yellow gastric contents are gastric juices
    • vomiting green contents are gallbladder juices, i.e. bile
  • gastrointestinal bleeding GIT
    • hematemesis, which is the vomiting of fresh blood, especially in alcoholism
    • melena, ie the presence of digested blood in the stool manifests as black, tarry stool
  • anemia due to bleeding or vitamin B12 deficiency
  • flatulence, bloating, bloating
  • weight loss
  • feeling fullness

Remember: if bleeding from the digestive tract occurs, an immediate examination is important. Bleeding can endanger a person's health and life.

We also know gastroenteritis, which is actually inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is mainly caused by infection. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Such as rotaviruses, salmonellosis, shigella, E. coli or staphylococci, and others.

TIP: information article How is salmonellosis transmitted and how to defend against it?

Symptoms of gastroenteritis include:

  • food and fluid intolerance
  • feeling sick (vomiting)
  • diarrhea, watery stools, containing mucus to pus
  • dehydration, which is especially dangerous for children and the elderly
  • fever
  • abdominal pain, how much
  • exacerbation of the underlying disease

Diarrhea is the third most common cause of death in children under 5, especially in developing countries.
Do you know  how to manage diarrhea in children?

Gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in an infectious disease clinic. As it is a risk for complications. The risk is mainly dehydration, worsening of long-term diseases, or the development of SIRS, which is the systemic inflammatory response of the body. That is why it is important to have a professional examination,  early diagnosis, and treatment.


Diagnosis of gastritis is based on a history, which is supplemented by a clinical picture. However, the main method that confirms the diagnostic conclusion is a material collection. Thus, histological examination, a biopsy is performed - tissue removal during endoscopic surgery. And that is gastro endoscopy.

For example, gastrointestinal bleeding is an indication for acute esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). This is an examination with an endoscope, a small camera that looks for the source of the bleeding. This can be esophageal varix or deep erosion of the gastric mucosa or duodenal ulcer.

To take a sample of tissue is performed histological examination, and it does a pathologist. Endoscopic examination is performed by an expert, a gastroenterologist. During endoscopy, the doctor sees changes in the lining of the stomach, technically referred to as gastropathy. In this macroscopic view, he sees changes such as redness, erosions, ulcers, bleeding.

In addition, it is possible to use imaging methods, and thus  X-ray, CT, which can be supplemented by USG examination. Non-invasive tests can also be used to diagnose Helicobacter infection, either by a breath test (13C urea) or a stool test  (HpSA). Alternatively, by a laboratory blood test - serology.


Acute gastritis develops extremely rapidly, even within 24 hours. Especially after stomach irritation. Whether alcohol, drugs, or inappropriate diet. Similarly, as a result of stress or excessive mental stress. Difficulties may be non-specific at first. Such as nausea, nausea, and even a feeling of vomiting. A person can also be weak.

Later, pain in the abdomen, ie in the epigastrium, may be associated. The feeling of vomiting follows vomiting when the victim returns the yellow contents. This is actually gastric juice. Vomiting of green contents indicates the presence of bile. And a bright to deep red color is a sign of bleeding into the digestive tract. This vomiting is also referred to as hematemesis.

Of course, when consuming a diet that stains red (various fruits, beets, red wine, food coloring), it is possible to incorrectly determine hematemesis. If upper bleeding is present, melanoma also occurs. What is the presence of digested blood in the stool? The stool is black to tarry.

Another symptom is fresh blood in the stool, which can be present during bleeding from the lower part of the digestive system. For example in hemorrhoids or diverticulitis. Non-specific symptoms of gastritis may include loss of appetite, feeling full, bloated. Even in the case of chronic gastritis.

Chronic gastritis has an asymptomatic course. Only in acute deterioration can he have these symptoms. Anemia, which can be the result of bleeding, is also present in this type. But more often it is caused by a defect in the absorption of vitamin B12. There is pernicious anemia, namely anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is associated with paleness, fatigue, or difficulty breathing, even after minimal exertion. 

In the case of infectious gastroenteritis, vomiting and diarrhea are also present. If a person returns and has diarrhea for a long time, he is at risk of dehydration. Another risk is complication by bleeding into the abdominal cavity when perforating an ulcer. Cancer in the stomach is a serious risk of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter infection.

Supportive treatment of gastritis and lifestyle management are also suitable

Herbal teas can also be used for gastritis. Mint or ginger tea is suitable, as well as licorice tea. In this form, foods, raw materials, and nutritional supplements such as:

  • vitamin B12
  • further vitamins A, C, E
  • glutamine
  • probiotics
  • essential fatty acids
  • med
  • olive oil
  • Sea-buckthorn oil
  • skorocel
  • marigold
  • camomile
  • fennel

The table shows what is appropriate and what is unsuitable for stomach problems

Suitable Inappropriate
a balanced diet
plenty of proteins, fats, sugars, vitamins, and minerals
it is important to eat regular and smaller portions, for example, 5-6 times during the day smoking
eat slowly, chew thoroughly, it is stated 20-30 chews of one bite caffeine
cabbage, broccoli, cereals, or banana spicy food
cooked meat carbonated drinks
plenty of sleep, rest, and relaxation food too hot or cold
preventive inspections overeating
early diagnosis and treatment of difficulties starve
mint, ginger tea, rose hips fast food and semi-finished products
sufficient physical activity fried, fried, and smoked
too salty
enough fiber consume more fluids during meals
no more than 2 DCL
rasca disproportionate mental strain
physical fatigue
cinnamon do not irritate the gastric mucosa with drugs, chemicals

How it is treated: Gastritis

How is gastritis treated? Mainly with medication

Show more

Signs and symptoms of gastritis

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