# Optimal weight and height according to the age of the child: monitor growth and development

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## Calculator of ideal weight and height in children: calculation by age

What is the ideal weight and height for children by age?

First, we explain the percentiles. Then we give the basic information in a nutshell.

## A brief explanation of the percentiles

Percentiles express a child's state of growth and development in comparison with his or her peers. It is a statistical figure. It compares the height and weight of a child at a given age and sex with the rest of the child population.

It is a statistical number, not a competition. It does not matter whose child is taller than 95% of his peers or which child is the ideal weight.

The rates on the chart at a particular age are not indicative of the final outcome in adulthood. Extreme values may not indicate a health problem or disease.

Growth (height and weight) should be assessed on an individual basis. The results show where the child is currently compared to peers.

The doctor may suggest more frequent monitoring of the child's development if there are outliers.

A 5-year-old child with a height-weight ratio at the 10th percentile has higher values than 10% of similarly aged children and lower values than 90% of children.

The 97th and 3rd percentiles serve as outliers.

What does this mean for you?

Children in this range are screened and monitored more frequently.

A single measurement does not reflect the actual growth trajectory.

Multiple measurements are recorded and a growth curve is generated. The consistency of the growth chart and any significant deviations are monitored.

Important fact:
Dr. Khan says there is no ideal percentile.
Healthy children are in every height and weight category. A child in the 5th percentile may be as healthy as a child in the 95th percentile.

For example:

• If a child's height is at the 75th percentile, he is taller than 75% and shorter than 25% of other children his age.
• If he or she has a weight at the 25th percentile, he or she is over 25% and under 75% of children his or her age.

Dividing percentiles - banding:

• 97th percentile = child is heavier/higher than 97% and lighter/lower than 3% of children his age.
• 95th percentile = 95% of children are lower/lighter and 5% are higher/heavier
• 90th percentile = 90% of children are shorter/lighter and 10% are taller/heavier
• 75th percentile = 75% of children are shorter in height/weight and 25% are taller in height/weight
• 50th percentile = 50% of children are taller/heavier and 50% are shorter/lighter
• 25th percentile = child is taller/heavier than 25% and shorter/lighter than 75% of children
• 10th percentile = child is taller/heavier than 10% and shorter/lighter than 90% of children his/her age
• 5th percentile = 5% weigh less and 95% weigh more, same for height
• 3rd percentile = 3% of children are shorter/lighter and 97% of children their age are taller/heavier
• Mean height/weight band = 25th-75th percentile = average growth trend
• Outliers = 97th and 3rd percentile - physician suggests more frequent check-ups and monitors growth curve more frequently

## What is the ideal for weight and height?

What is the ideal weight and height for children according to age? Parents of younger children especially ask these types of questions.

We offer tables of optimal weights and heights for children and adolescents from birth to age 20.

Is the child developing properly, does his height and weight correspond to the appropriate age?

It is natural to be interested in information about the development and growth of the child.

## Growth and growth during childhood to early adulthood

The growth of the child is a natural part of this period.

Some children grow more slowly. This does not determine their final height in adulthood. Growth takes place throughout childhood into early adolescence and adulthood.

Children's growth is highly individual and is influenced by a variety of factors.

Height is influenced by several factors including heredity (height of parents). Tall parents are expected to have taller children and vice versa.

Examples of factors affecting children's growth:

• genetics, heredity
• organ function
• influence of hormones
• proper nutrition
• oxygenation of the body (especially during fetal development, smoking and drugs negatively affect growth in the mother), anaemia, lung disease, etc.
• psychological well-being and stress

During life, children have several periods of increased growth rates. These are 4 main phases.

The 4 growth phases in child development:

### 1st growth period: Fetal growth.

This is the period of development, growth of the fetus in the mother's womb. The length and weight at birth is affected by the mother's nutrition. It is negatively affected by addictions to nicotine, alcohol, drugs.

Smoking and drug addicted mothers have babies with lower birth weight and lower growth.

Maternal illnesses during pregnancy also play a role.

The fetus grows fastest in the 2nd trimester.

### 2nd period of increased growth rate - Infantile period

The infant period is the child from birth to the 28th day of life. The infant period is from the 29th day to the first year.

A baby can grow up to 25 cm in this period.

During the second year of life, it may grow another 10-12 cm.

The main influences include nutrition, body oxygenation and hormonal activity (growth hormone and thyroid hormones).

The rate of growth during this period is approximately 15% of the total final height of the child/adult.

### Period 3 - Pre-school and younger school age

The preschool period up to puberty.

Normally at this time a child will grow 5-7 centimetres per year.

The gain represents about 40% of the final height.

### Period 4: Pubertal growth to early adolescence

Has the time of puberty and sexual maturation begun?

The growth spurt phase begins due to the influence of the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol.

Girls after the age of 10 can grow an average of 9 cm each year (7-11 cm per year). The slowdown in growth usually comes along with menarche - the first menstrual period.

Boys have a delay in puberty of about one year. They grow on average about 10.5 cm per year (7-15 cm per year).

At puberty, the proportion of increase in final height is about 15%.

In our conditions, the average height of males is 179 cm and of females 167 cm.

Slower growth may cause later sexual development. It does not affect final height.

In the case of precocious puberty, the final height may be lower. This is due to premature closure of the growth cleft.

### Growth assessment

Evaluation belongs to the pediatrician.

The paediatrician assesses growth according to growth charts that show the results in a percentile grid.

Deviations from growth may be due to illness or the use of medications (such as corticosteroids).

The percentile chart can tell if a child's height is within the range of his or her peers.

• Body height 75th percentile = 75% of children in the shorter age range and 25% in the taller age range
• 25th-75th percentile = middle height range - approximately 50% of children
• Band above 75th percentile = tall children
• Band above 90th percentile = very tall children
• Band below 25th percentile = smaller children
• and the band below the 10th percentile = very young children
• The outliers are the 97th and 3rd percentile
• Children in this range are more likely to be screened and monitored

### What is genetic growth potential?

This is a genetic factor that a child has inherited from their parents.

It is assessed:

1. Boy's height = (father's height + mother's height + 13) : 2
2. Height of girl = (height of father + height of mother - 13) : 2

Examples:

1. Boy - if father is 180 cm and mother is 170 cm - expected height at adulthood = 181.5 cm / (180 + 170 + 13) : 2 and 363 : 2 = 181.5
2. girl - if the father is 180 cm and the mother 170 cm - predicted adult height = 168.5 cm / (180 + 170 - 13) : 2 and 337 : 2 = 168.5

(always allow for a margin of error)

## What about the weight of the child?

A child grows in height and gains weight. This is natural.

The amount of energy intake is, of course, one of the factors that influence the value on the scale. But with children it is not as simple as with adults.

After birth, a baby is approximately 3200 grams. Subsequently, he loses 100-300 grams, which is a normal drop after birth. Weight equalization occurs after approximately 10-12 days.

After that, regular weight gain is expected. In numbers:

1. a quarter of a year - 200 grams per week, and about 25-30 grams per day
2. quarter - 150 grams per week
3. quarter - 100 grams per week
4. quarter - 75 grams per week

Subsequently, the child gains about 2 kilograms per year. In the 5th-6th year, it is only 1 kilogram.

Charts are used to assess body weight.

The doctor assesses growth and weight gain relative to each other. Kilo in relation to height. It is a BMI assessment.

Until the age of 18, the assessment is done with the help of special charts.

The doctor assesses the overall appearance of the child. In case of deviations, he observes the child more often and looks for their causes.

In addition to the doctor, the mother also looks at her child with an interest in his healthy development. Therefore, in these days of freely available information, she searches the Internet for the right numbers.

For this very reason, we present a little help tool. It can give you an indicative view of the ratio of height and weight in relation to age.

Why just a guide?

Because no objective judgement can be made from two numbers.

A child may eat more at some times and less at others.

### Table of weights and heights with regard to specific ages

In the following tables we give average values for body weight and height.

Once again, a small warning:
These are only average values.
Each child develops differently.

#### Table: Average body weight and height for children up to 11 months of age

 AGE Weight in kg Length in cm Girl Boy Girl Boy Newborn 3,31 3,3 49,2 49,8 1 month 4,35 4,4 53,8 54,8 2 months 5,3 5,6 56,1 58,4 3 months 6,03 6,4 59,9 61,4 4 months 6,62 7 62,2 64 5 months 7,17 7,53 64,2 66 6 months 7,53 7,94 64,1 67,5 7 months 7,9 8,3 67,3 69 8 months 8,21 8,62 68,8 70,6 9 months 8,53 8,9 70,1 71,8 10 months 8,8 9,12 71,6 73,1 11 months 9,03 9,43 72,8 74,4

#### Table: Average body weight and height of children aged 12 to 23 months

 AGE Weight in kg Length in cm Girl Boy Girl Boy 12 months 9,25 9,66 74,1 75,7 13 months 9,53 9,89 75,1 76,9 14 months 9,75 10,12 76,4 77,9 15 months 9,98 10,3 77,7 79,2 16 months 10,2 10,52 78,4 80,2 17 months 10,43 10,75 79,7 81,2 18 months 10,61 10,93 80,7 82,2 19 months 10,84 11,16 81,7 83,3 20 months 11,07 11,34 82,8 84 21 months 11,3 11,57 83,5 85 22 months 11,52 11,75 84,8 86,1 23 months 11,75 11,93 85,1 86,8

#### Table: Average body weight and height for children aged 2 to 12 years

 AGE Weight in kg Height in cm Girl Boy Girl Boy 2 years 12,02 12,47 85,5 86,8 3 years 14,29 14,06 94 95,2 4 years 15,42 16,33 100,3 102,3 5 years 17,92 18,37 107,9 109,2 6 years 19,96 20,64 115,5 115,5 7 years 22,45 22,9 121,1 121,9 8 years 25,85 25,63 128,2 128 9 years 28,12 28,58 133,3 133,3 10 years 31,98 32 138,4 138,4 11 years 36,97 35,6 144 143,5 12 years 41,5 39,92 149,8 149,1

#### Table: Average body weight and height for children and adolescents aged 13 to 20 years

 AGE Weight in kg Height in cm Girl Boy Girl Boy 13 years 45,81 45,36 156,7 156,2 14 years 47,63 50,8 158,7 163,8 15 years 52,16 56,02 159,7 170,1 16 years 53,52 60,78 162,5 173,4 17 years 54,43 64,41 162,5 175,2 18 years 56,7 66,9 163 175,7 19 years 57,15 68,95 163 176,5 20 years 58,06 70,3 163,3 177

Data in tables are from disabled-world.com, WHO and CDC.

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Please remember that the results of our health calculators and analyzers are for guidance purposes only. They are not a substitute for a professional examination or the advice of a doctor, pharmacist or other health care professional.

Each person is unique, and everyone's needs may vary. Calculators and analyzers have limitations and do not provide a comprehensive individual view of health.

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You are advised to consult a professional for your medical condition. Remember that health is an important topic and any decisions should be made in consultation with a professional.

This calculator/analyzer is not a medical tool or medical aid. Consult your doctor about your health problem.

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